Health Information Update

Source: WHO, Event Information Site for IHR National Focal

Event Updates: 18 October 2019

Event Updated Country Hazard Disease Event Description IHR Assessment
2019-10-18 Philippines


Infectious Aetiology:

Detection of VDPV1 in environmental sample

A circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) has been confirmed in environmental samples.  Genetically-linked virus has been isolated from eight environmental samples with between 32 to 40 nucleotide changes from the Sabin type 1 vaccine virus. The samples were collected from one sewage collection site and its tributary pumping stations in Manila, between 1 July and 9 September. This sewage collection site has a catchment area of over 600,000 persons from six districts from within the City of Manila.

Philippines has reported the last indigenous wild poliovirus in 1993 and the country is currently having an ongoing circulating vaccine derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) since September 2019.

There has been persistently suboptimal immunization coverage for OPV3 and IPV in the country: 66% and 41% respectively in 2018.

Given subnational surveillance and immunity gaps and high levels of population movement within the country, the risk of national spread associated with this confirmed cVDPV1 is considered to be high.  The country is currently being affected by an ongoing cVDPV2 outbreak.

 WHO does not recommend any restriction on travel and/or trade to the Philippines based on the available information for the current polio outbreak.

Public Health Risk
2019-10-18 Sudan


Infectious Rift Valley Fever On 10 October 2019, the IHR-NFP of Sudan notified WHO of 47 cases of RVF, including two deaths in Arb’aat area, Towashan Village, in El Ganeb locality in Red Sea State. The first cases presented to the health facilities on 19 September 2019. Blood samples were taken from five of them and sent to the National Public Health Laboratory in Khartoum for RVF confirmation. All tested positive by IgM ELISA and RT-PCR. The cases presented with high grade fever, headache, joint pain, with or without vomiting. There were no hemorrhagic signs or symptoms observed.

On 13 October 2019, 10 suspect RVF cases were reported in Barbar and Abu Hamed localities in River Nile State. Five samples were tested for RVF by PCR and four showed positive result. From 19 September through 15 October, a total of 115 RVF cases, including two deaths, have been reported from the Red Sea (78) and River Nile (37) States.

These human RVF cases coincide with cases of abortion and deaths among goats in the areas where the human cases have been reported: between 25 September and 13 October, 2019, 21 goats were reported as positive for RVF by ELISA, including four deaths.

The likelihood of international spread of RVF virus is high due to trade of live animals from Sudan to other countries in the Arabian Peninsula where the presence of suitable mosquito vectors has been documented, as well as informal cross-border movements of livestock with insufficient alert mechanisms, and lack of effective control programmes in countries neighboring Sudan.

WHO advises against the application of any travel or trade restrictions on Sudan based on the current information available on this event.

To be assigned

 *A public health risk is something that is (or is likely to be) hazardous to human health or could contribute to a disease or an infectious  condition in humans.